Ananda Marga

Ananda Marga – A Path of Bliss that guide the Sadvipras

Ananda Margas nine headquarters around the world.

Members of Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team (AMURT) at work during a disaster in Gujarat (India) in 2001

A member of the Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team (AMURT) treating people injured in the Haiti earthquake.

Ānanda[1][2] Mārga[3][4] (Sanskrit, m., आनन्द मार्ग, ānanda mārga), organizationally known as Ānanda Mārga Pracaraka Samgha (AMPS), meaning the samgha (organization) for the propagation of the marga (path) of ananda (bliss), is a social and spiritual movement[5][6] founded in Jamalpur, Bihar, India in 1955 by Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar (1921–1990), also known by his spiritual name,[7] Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti.[8]

Ananda Marga is described as a practical philosophy for personal development, social service and the all around transformation of society.[9] Its system of spiritual practice has also been explained as a practical synthesis of Vedic and Tantric philosophies.[10] Through its meditation centres[11] and service projects around the world,[12] Ananda Marga offers instruction in meditation, yoga and other self-development leadership practices on a non-commercial basis.

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Organisation and Activities
    • 2.1 Renaissence Universal (RU)
    • 2.2 Progressive Women Spiritual Association (PWSA)
    • 2.3 Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team (AMURT and AMURTEL)
    • 2.4 Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and Plants (PCAP)
    • 2.5 Renaissance Artists and Writers Association (RAWA)
    • 2.6 Education, relief, tribal and women’s welfare section (ERAWS)
      • 2.6.1 Ananda Marga Gurukula (AMGK)
  • 3 Disciplines, Teachings and Practice
    • 3.1 Meditation, Lalita Marmika dance and Kirtan
    • 3.2 Vegetarian Diet, Yoga asanas, Physical Exercises and Yogic Treatments
  • 4 Spiritual and Social Philosophy
    • 4.1 Spiritual philosophy
    • 4.2 Social philosophy
    • 4.3 Tantra in Ananda Marga
    • 4.4 Guru and Disciple
    • 4.5 Symbology
      • 4.5.1 Pratiik – The Symbol of Ananda Marga
  • 5 Literary production
    • 5.1 Bibliography
  • 6 Musical production
  • 7 False accusations of involvement of three Ananda Marga members in terrorist acts in Australia
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
    • 9.1 Citations
    • 9.2 Sources
  • 10 Further reading
  • 11 External links

[] History

Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar aka Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1921-1990). He was the founder (1955) and the first President of Ananda Marga.

Drawing of Acharya Samanvayananda Avadhuta (1922-2005). He was the second Avadhuta of Ananda Marga. Shrii Shrii Anandamurti personally initiated him as Kapalika and he received his Avadhutaship in 1962).

In 1939 on August 2 (at 8:30 pm, on the full moon day of Shravani[13] Purnima[14]), P.R. Sarkar initiated with Tantrikii Diiksa or “Tantric initiation” Kalicharan Bandyopadhyay (after aka Kalikananda Avadhuta) into meditation at Kashi Mitra Gh’at on the bank of the river Bhagirathi in Kalikata (Kolkata aka Calcutta), West Bengal, India. This was the start of Sarkar’s spiritual teaching at the early age of 18 and many unknown Sadhakas (“spiritual aspirants”) were initiated from then up to 1955. From 1941 until the early 1950s, Sarkar worked as an accountant at the Indian railways headquarters in Jamalpur, Bihar, India. He taught the techniques of ancient tantra[15] meditation to a select number of his colleagues and gradually more and more people were drawn to the spiritual practices he taught.

Second president of Ananda Marga, the late Acarya Shraddhananda Avadhuta (1919-2008).

CHRONOLOGY
Date Events
1954 On November 7, Sarkar called his disciples together for the first time and delivered his first spiritual address.[16]
1955 On January 5, the naming ceremony of the organization Ananda Marga was held in Jamalpur. On January 9, Sarkar officially inaugurated Ananda Marga Pracharaka Samgha (“the Organization to Propagate the Path of Bliss[disambiguation needed]“). Sarkar explained that the aim of the organization was based on a two-fold ideal: “liberation of self and service to humanity”.[16] On the same date at Rampur colony, Jamalpur, the first Dharma Maha Cakra (a spiritual ceremony where the disciples meditate in the presence of the Master and He holds an important spiritual discourse and performs a special Mudra named Varabaja Mudra) was held. From 15 to 28 March the first group of acharyas was created in Jamalpur. The first volumes of Sarkar’s writings[17] were published, including Ananda Marga Elementary Philosophy,[18] and Problems of the Day.[19]
1956 Sarkar exposed Caryacarya[20] (Carya means “dos” and acarya means “don’ts”) in three volumes with social codes and usages. Ananda Marga College founded in Anandanagar, Purulia district.
1957 Sarkar dictated Guide to Human Conduct,[21] with indications for new cardinal human values and rules of how to live in Society.
1958 Renaissance Universal (RU), the first of the 35 board of the organization, was founded on 25 January at Trimuhan, Bhagalpur district, Bihar, India. “Renaissance Artists and Writers Association” (RAWA) was also founded in Bhagalpur[22] in order to restore art to its true meaning. Sarkar published Yogic Treatment and Natural Remedies.[23]
1959 In his fifth book Idea and Ideology,[24] a collection of speeches delivered to higher Tattvika trainees from 27 May to 5 June, Sarkar propounded Progressive Utilization Theory (PROUT),[25] a socioeconomic theory that is based on Neo-humanism and cardinal human values.
1961 Sarkar condensed the entire Ananda Marga phylosophy within 85 aphorisms composed in Sanskrit in a book called Ananda Sutram[26] (“aphorisms leading to ananda, divine bliss[disambiguation needed]“). The book contains original concepts of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and macrohistory.[27]
1962 Sarkar created the order of monks and nuns (renunciate ministers or acharyas) and eventually training centers (Prashiksana Matha) were established in different parts of the world: Ydrefors (Sweden)[6], Davao (Philippines), Varanasi and Bangalore (India) and Ghana (Africa). These ácáryas are full-time workers and fully ordained ministers. The juniors, known as brahmachariis and brahmacariniis for male and female respectively, are dressed up in a saffron-coloured top and a white bottom, while the seniors, known as avadhutas and avadhutikas, are dressed in full saffron attire.
1963 The “Education, Relief, and Tribal and Women’s Welfare Section” (ERAWS) of Ananda Marga was founded. The service activities, such as schools, orphanages and emergency relief work, that had started from the inception of Ananda Marga were now managed by ERAWS. Ananda Marga registered its headquarters at Anandanagar, West Bengal.
1964 The Ananda Marga Board of Education was formed.
1965 The Women’s Welfare Department (WWD)[28] and the Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team (AMURT) were started. AMURT is now an international NGO with many teams very active in the areas affected by natural disasters.[29][30][31]
1967 The first acaryas left the Indian subcontinent to propagate Ananda Marga spiritual philosophy and practices worldwide throughout the nine sectors in the world.[32][33]
1969 The first Ananda Marga New York Sectoral office (whose jurisdiction is North and Central America and the Caribbean) was opened in Carbondale, Illinois, USA.[32][33]
1971 Sarkar was arrested and imprisoned pending trial for allegedly conspiring to murder several former members of the organization.[34] Under a declared opposition from the Indian government, Sarkar received life sentence (Barker 1989: 168), which was overturned in a re-trial in 1978. Sarkar claimed that on February 12, 1973 he was poisoned while in Bankipur Central Jail, Patna.[35][36] His demand for a judicial investigation in his poisoning was, however, not granted by the authorities and consequently he started fasting April 1, 1973 on a daily glass of yoghurt water until his release, five years and four months later.[37]
1973 Established approximately 100 local centers in many countries of the world teaching yoga, meditation, spiritual and social philosophies to thousands.[32][33]
1975 Ananda Marga Relief Team Ladies (AMURTEL) was started. AMURTEL is managed by women and initiates programs that raise the standard of health and education of women and their children.
1975 to 1977 Ananda Marga was banned under the state of emergency imposed by the Indian government of Indira Gandhi (that moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition). Over 400 of its schools in India were closed down, and numerous ministers and adherents were imprisoned with false charges. Sarkar’s imprisonment led to a global campaign of protests by followers, all the while Margiis maintained his innocence and reported his poisoning in prison and that it had severely damaged his health and temporarily affected his sight. As a political protest against the imprisonment of their guru, a few members of Ananda Marga, against the will of their master, committed self-immolation in the late 1970s.[38][39]
1977 The “Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and Plants” (PCAP) board was founded.[40]
1978 Three members of the organization were found guilty of conspiring to murder the Indian High Commissioner in London the previous year and were sentenced to a total of 12 years.[41] On July 4, after the end of the emergency period in India, Sarkar’s conviction was overturned on appeal and he was exonerated of all charges.[42]
1979 Sarkar traveled overseas, invited by practitioners of Ananda Marga from various countries. In April, he was banned from entering the USA by the State Department, due to having spoken out against corruption in the government of India. He instead went to Jamaica in September for a gathering of Ananda Marga practitioners in North and Central America.[43]
1982 Sarkar introduced the philosophy of Neohumanism[44] and several volumes on philology. Throughout his life he gave thousands of speeches on various themes which were further transcribed and published by his disciples. The topics included spiritual philosophy, cosmology, history, anthropology, bio-psychology, farming, naturopathy, education, socioeconomic liberation, and other literary works. He also began to compose what later would comprise of 5,018 songs collectively called Prabhata Samgiita (Songs of the New Dawn).
1986 Sarkar began to propound the theory of Microvita, small, subtle entities which he said are the foundation of all existence. Research on the field has begun by the Microvita Research Institute, but their progress and findings are still in the developmental stage.
1990 Sarkar found Ananda Marga Gurukula on September 7. Sarkar died on 21 October at 3:10 pm. Acarya Shraddhananda Avadhuta was elected from the body of purodhas as President of the Ananda Marga global organization and Purodha Pramukha. He served in that capacity until his death in 2008.
1991 Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team received recognition as an NGO by the United Nations.
1996 The Supreme Court of India lifted the ban on government employees from being members of Ananda Marga, and affirmed the legal status of the organization.

[] Organisation and Activities

A group of Ananda Marga members in Triuggio (Monza, Italy) on July 1977 during an international meeting.

Ananda Marga Pracaraka Samgha (AMPS) is an organization and a socio/spiritual movement led by acharyas[45] (or monks/nuns) and laypersons (or margis), practitioners of Ananda Marga meditation. The Ananda Marga Sanskrit motto, given by its founder P. R. Sarkar, is: “Átmamokśártham’ Jagaddhitáya Ca” (“liberation of the self and service for the welfare of all creation”). The highest level of religious minister in AMPS is a Purodha. And specifically the Purodha Pramukha is the spiritual head of Ananda Marga and AMPS. The Global Office is the main representative organ of AMPS, led by the General Secretary. The structure of the organization is geographically divided into nine sectors, each named after a primary city in the sector:

  1. Delhi Sector – the Indian subcontinent
  2. Hong Kong Sector – North-East Asia
  3. Manila Sector – South-East Asia
  4. Suva Sector – Australia, Pacific region
  5. New York Sector – North and Central America and the Caribbean
  6. Georgetown Sector – South America
  7. Berlin Sector – Europe
  8. Qahira Sector – Balkans, West Asia, North Africa
  9. Nairobi Sector – Sub-Saharan Africa

Each sector is further subdivided into regions, which again are further divided as per needs. Each of them is led by a Sectorial Secretary, Regional Secretary, and so on. From the organizational side the AMPS was divided by its founder into Departments divided in a number of Sections (with different Branches). To materialize the programs of the different Departments/Sections/Branches there are 35 Boards. The responsibility of the different organizational levels of the structure are generally run by full-time workers, mainly ‘WT’s (“Ananda Marga wholetimers”).

Ananda Marga runs yoga and meditation centers, schools, children’s homes, food distribution centers, disaster relief programs, medical clinics, integral community development projects and other services, carried through many service branches. Emphasis is placed on solving the problems of the local people, by empowering them in managing all their personal and social resources for the prosperity of all. To develop its service activities in the various levels of society, AMPS is composed of many Boards. Here we list some:

[] Renaissence Universal (RU)

RU is an association of scientist, academicians, artists, journalists, lawyers, professional, executives, students and other group of thinkers who believes in universal neo-humanism, intellectual and intuitional or spiritual divulgation and research. They will support and cultivate the finer faculties of human psyche and encourage art, music, literature and all other branches of fine arts.[46]

[] Progressive Women Spiritual Association (PWSA)

PWSA aims to acquaint women with spiritual practices for everyday life and give guidance in sustainable physical, mental and spiritual wellbeing encouraging women to free themselves from age-old taboos and outdated religious practices and move along rational spirituality.[47][48]

[] Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team (AMURT and AMURTEL)

Ananda Marga AMURTEL Children’s and Mother’s Home Baan Unrak (“House of Joy”) in Sangkhlaburi (North-West of Kanchanaburi Province (Thailand, close to Myanmar’s border).

The social welfare and development organization under AMPS is Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team, or AMURT.[49] There is a joint branch of AMURT run specifically by women called AMURTEL (AMURT Lady-Managed). AMURT has projects in over 80 countries and arranges both emergency relief during disasters, and long term projects such as building of schools, clinics, children’s homes and other assets for community development.[50]

[] Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and Plants (PCAP)

This board was founded on 1977[40] by Sarkar to ensure adequate protection to plants and animals. PCAP cover a large spectrum of ecology issues such as: Afforestation, Environmental education, Vegetarianism, Ecotourism, Biodiversity protection, Organic gardens, Rural Eco-communities and protection of Indigenous Forest dwellers. “This Universe is the patrimony of all living beings, because all are children of the same Cosmic Father. But the skylicking greed of man always tries to deprive his animal brothers of their right to live in accordance with their inborn instincts and natural wonts. The PCAP program is to bring world-wide consciousness among human beings, regarding the rights of the members of the animal and plant kingdom.”[51]

[] Renaissance Artists and Writers Association (RAWA)

AMPS also strives for development of humanity in all other spheres of life. Renaissance Artists and Writers Association (RAWA)[52][53] is an organization for the development of the fine arts. RAWA regularly arranges cultural training and events. The Ananda Marga Association of Yoga Educators (AMAYE) was started in 2006 as a forum for research, discussion and sharing of knowledge about Ananda Marga Yoga & Spiritual practices and a conference is held every year.

[] Education, relief, tribal and women’s welfare section (ERAWS)

The service activities of this section[54] founded in 1963 are focused on: 1)Education: creating and managing primary, post primary and higher schools, research institutes etc., 2)Relief: creating and managing children’s and students’ homes (for destitute children and for poor students), cheap hostels, retiring homes, academies of light (for deaf dumb and crippled), invalid homes, refuge reabilitation etc., 3)Tribal: tribal welfare units, medical camps etc., 4)Women’s welfare: women welfare units, women’s homes, nursing homes etc.

[] Ananda Marga Gurukula (AMGK)

Ananda Marga Nursery School near Nairobi (Kenya).

Ananda Marga Gurukula[55][56] was founded by Shrii P.R. Sarkar in order to build Ananda Marga University[57] with its headquarters at Anandanagar, Purulia district (India) and to bring together the entire neohumanist education movement under its overall academic guidance and direction. The educational network of Gurukula now runs over 1000 schools in India and other continents.

The Ananda Marga School on Eastern Metropolitan Bypass, Kolkata.

Ánanda Márga Gurukula (AMGK) is engaged in creating a worldwide network of Neo-humanist Schools and Institutes to hasten the advent of a society in which there is love, peace, understanding, inspiration, justice and health for all.[6] Reflecting the broadness of Sarkar’s universal vision, AMGK has become a multi-faceted organization, with different branches dedicated to the upliftment of humanity through education, relief, welfare, the arts, ecology, intellectual renaissance, women’s emancipation, and humanistic economy. All these institutions are based on neo-humanist educational philosophy.

In 1990, the Ananda Marga “Education Relief and Welfare Section” (ERAWS), which grew to a global network of about 1,000 neo-humanist schools and institutes, culminated in the founding of the Ananda Marga Gurukula University, with links to several hundred self-reliant eco-village projects (“Master Units”) throughout the world. AMGK is actively engaged in the following projects:

  • building an educational township at Anandanagar, West Bengal, India, on a 525 square kilometre campus;
  • supporting the building of a global eco-village network (Master Units), ranging from 5 acres (20,000 m2) to 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) each, in over 120 countries.

The headquarters of AMGK is in Anandanagar, West Bengal, India.[58] AMGK Inc., is its global liaison office, located in Ithaca, New York. Its Chancellor operates from office located at Ydrefors, Sweden. Dr. Acharya Shambhushivananda Avadhuta, PhD (University of Pennsylvania) is the Founding Chancellor (Kulapati) of Ananda Marga Gurukula the kulapati is supported by a steering body (cakradhuri), and an academic council (mahasamiti). [7]. The “Neo-Humanist Schools and Research Institutes”, affiliated with AMGK, publishes a bi-annual newsletter, the Gurukula Network, in May and November.

[] Disciplines, Teachings and Practice

Tantra yoga, as interpreted by Shrii Shrii Anandamurti,[59] is the practical philosophy which serves as foundation of Ananda Marga. According with Shrii Shrii Anandamurti’s teachings Tantra means liberation from darkness, the root tan meaning darkness, and tra liberation.[60] Meditation is the main spiritual practice of this tantric tradition, and through it the practitioner struggles to overcome weaknesses and imperfections.[61] The basis of Ananda Marga practice is covered by a set of rules called the ‘Sixteen Points’ that guide the practitioner on both spiritual and social aspects.

[] Meditation, Lalita Marmika dance and Kirtan

Meditation’s posture.

In the tantric tradition of Ananda Marga the spiritual aspirant (sadhaka) practices sadhana. Sadhana (a Sanskrit word) signifies the effort through which a person becomes completely realized. In Tantra the spiritual master, the guru,[62] plays a special role. The guru guides and leads students on the spiritual path.[63] The aspirant learns meditation by a qualified acarya.[64] Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti taught many systems of meditation such as Prárambhika Yoga, Sádharana Yoga, Sahaja Yoga and Vishesha Yoga.[citation needed] In addition, he also taught Kapalika meditation to many sanyásins. His system of yoga can be termed as Rájadhirája Yoga, Tantra Yoga, or simply Ánanda Márga Yoga. The basic Ánanda Márga meditation system is called Sahaja Yoga (‘simple yoga’). The sahaja system consists of 6 meditation techniques or lessons taught one by one, on a personal basis.[65][66] There is also a set of higher meditation lessons taught to advanced practitioners committed to dedicate more time for spiritual practices and universal service.

According to the Ananda Marga system the Lalita Marmika dance is performed, particularly during the collective meditation.[67] This yogic dance with swaying movements, combined with a kirtan (the chanting of the universal mantra), is regarded as useful in freeing the mind and preparing it for meditation. Ananda Marga system recommends to its members the practice of collective meditation at least once a week. These meetings called Dharma Chakras (weekly held in a place called Dhyan Mandir) are preceded by the singing of few Prabhat Samgiita (“Songs of the New Dawn” composed by the Ananda Marga founder) followed by the spiritual dance of Lalita Marmika along with the singing of About this sound [[:Media:|kiirtan]] (help·[[:Image:|info]]) and by the practice of meditation. Before meditation the About this sound Samgacchadvam (help·info) mantra is chanted. At the end of meditation the About this sound Nityam Shuddham (help·info) and the About this sound Guru Puja (help·info) mantras are recited.

[] Vegetarian Diet, Yoga asanas, Physical Exercises and Yogic Treatments

Yoga Sarvangasana.

Tandava dance. One of the 108 Tandava poses of Nataraja (dancing Shiva).

Lalita Marmika dance.

Historical photo (taken in Italy on July 1978) representing an international group of Ananda Marga followers singing a Kirtan in occasion of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti’s liberation.

Kaoshiki dance.

The basic practices of Ananda Marga comprises yoga asanas, mudras, bandhas, pranayama, self-massage and two specific dances, kaos’ikii and tandava. Lacto-vegetarian diet and fasting are also included, as a fundamental part of yogic practices.

  • Diet and fasting: Lacto-vegetarian diet of ananda Marga avoids meat, fish, eggs and some substances which are considered to have a negative effect on the mind. Ananda Marga divides food into three categories: 1)Sattvic (“sentient food”): with good effects on body and mind,[68] light and easy to digest. 2)Rajasic (“active food”): is beneficial for body or mind but not for both.[69] 3)Tamasic (“static” or “inert” food): is harmful for both body and mind. This food is heavy, difficult to digest and unnecessary.[70] Moreover, on specific monthly dates called Ekadashi (Sanskrit: एकादशी, ekādaśī: is the eleventh day after the full moon or after the new moon),[71] the regular practice of Upavasa (yoga fasting) is recommended to improve health and strengthen the mind.
  • Yoga asanas, mudras and bandhas: comprises 42 asanas[72] which were specifically selected by P.R. Sarkar for their complementary benefits to health and for preparing body/mind for meditation. There are mainly two types of asana: svasthyasanas, mainly practised for physical healt, and dhyanasanas practised primarily for concentration of mind and meditation.[73] They should be performed at least once a day.[74] 15 Yoga mudras and bandhas are also part of the basic Ananda Marga Yoga.[75][76]
  • Yogic treatments: on 1957 P. R. Sarkar published in Bengali “Yaogika Cikitsa o Dravyaguna” which was translated into English and published in 1983 with revisions under the title “Yogic Treatments and Natural Remedies”. On this handbook he gave indications on yogic treatments using ásanas and mudrás combined with the use of natural and traditional remedies for about forty diseases. The book also contains many tips for maintaining good health through the use of water, clay, etc.[77]
  • Kaoshikii: the ‘dance for mental expansion’, was defined by P. R. Sarkar a ‘physico-psycho-spiritual’ exercise which can be performed by all and consists of 18 mudras aligning with 6 physical postures, each associated with a specific idea[78] while strengthening body and mind and making them flexible. There is also a claim that the exercise strengthens the nervous and endocrine system to give full body balance.
  • Tandava or Tāṇḍava: is a vigorous dance.[79] The name tandava is derived from the Sanskrit word tandu, which means ‘to jump’. This dance is only performed by male followers in Ananda Marga because of its testosterone producing effect, which consequently strengthens male characteristics in body and mind. The dance is performed to imbue the practitioner’s mind with courage and honour, dispelling all sorts of complexes and fear, even fear of death itself.[80][81]

[] Spiritual and Social Philosophy

The philosophy of Ananda Marga is a synthetic outlook, recognizing the one limitless ‘Supreme Consciousness’,[82] both transcendental and manifested in all.[83] It covers both the spiritual and the social combining the two in a unique synthesis of universal vision.[84] To this end Ananda Marga suggests a practical, rational, and systematic way of life for the balanced development of all human potentialities: physical, psychic and spiritual. This system incorporate practices that range from hygiene and diet, yoga postures, to a scientific technique of meditation based on moral rules and directed to the inner fulfillment. It recognizes that a balance is needed between the spiritual and mundane aspects of existence, and that neither one should be neglected at the expense of the other. Hence, the goal of Ananda Marga is “self-realization and the welfare of all”.

[] Spiritual philosophy

The spiritual philosophy of Ananda Marga covers a vast range of topics and can be learned from P.R. Sarkar’s publications. Ananda Marga philosophy recognizes that the universe is the creation of the mental thought-waves of the ‘Supreme counsciousness’.[85][86] The following is a brief list of the essential elements of Ananda Marga Spiritual Philosophy:[87]

  • Cosmology:[88] the cosmology of Ananda Marga philosophy centers around the “Cosmic Cycle” (i.e. the “Cycle of Creation”), or Brahmacakra, a continual process of transformation at different stages. According to this philosophy Brahma, the “Cosmic Entity” (infinite, eternal and intransmutable bliss) composed of the two inseparable principles of Consciousness (“Witnessing Consciousness” or “Cognitive principle” aka Purusa or Shiva) and Force (“Operative principle” aka Prakrti or Shakti), transform a part of himself in a cycle in which the universe is created and then reabsorbed, and the finishing point is the same as the starting point. The first part of the cycle, in which Purusa allow Prakrti to gradually bind Him, from subtle to the ultimate state of crudity is called Saincara. The second part, the returning phase were the “Operative Principle” or Prakrti gradually contracts until the unit merges back into Him, is known as Pratisaincara.
  • Energy: As a result of external pressure of the static principle or Prakrti on the five factors (or bala) two opposing forces develop: a centre-seeking (this internal force tries to maintain the structural solidarity of the object) and a centrifugal one (tries to split up the object into thousands). The collective name of these two forces is prana, or “energy” and every solid factor possesses prana.
  • Solid structures, Life and Mind: if the resultant force created happens to be centre-seeking, a nucleus is formed within the solid factor. Under such circumstances a solid structure is created and maintenance of its physical solidarity depends upon the external pressure (bala). The important forces active in that body and collectively called Pranah or “vital energy”) are a collection of ten vayus working within the physical structure. If they are properly controlled by the nucleus and if there is a congenial environment there will be the expression of life. According to Ananda Marga philosophy every living being (humans, animals or plants) has a mind and an Atman or unit of witnessing consciousness. The simpler the entity is in physical structure, the simpler will be its mind.[89]
  • Atma or Soul and Paramatma or the Cosmic Consciousness: the Consciousness (Purusa) is reflected in the unit objects forming the “unit consciousness” (atma) or soul. Particularly the reflection of the soul on the mind is called jiivatma and in that case the “reflector-soul” is called Paramatma (Supreme Soul).[90] In whatever conditions the mind be–manifest (e.g. in animate beings and plants) or unmanifest, e.g., in inanimate earth, Iron, etc.), the soul or atma goes on reflecting itself on it and its crude objects. So every mind of crude entity is holding the Supreme Spirit according to its individual capacity. Their collective capacity is indeed the capacity of the “Macrocosmic Mind”. The Paramatma or the Supreme Soul is the “Ultimate Knower” of the “Macrocosmic Mind” and that is why Paramatma is called “Cosmic Consciousness”.
  • Death and Samskara: death occurs when the vital energy enters a state of disequilibrium and leaves the physical body that immediately ceases to function. The mind enters a “long sleep” but did not die as the physical body. The samskaras (or “reactive momenta” of the mind: are the imprints left on the mind by experience in this or previous lives) exist and are recorded in the causal mind. The Atman remains as the witness of this inactive mind.
  • Realms of the Mind: according to Ananda Marga philosophy the human mind is composed of five layers called Kosas:[91] 1)Annamaya Kosa (“food layer”) or “Crude Mind”: is the physical or crudest layer.[92] 2)Manomaya Kosa (“layer of thinking”) or “Subtle Mind”: is the layer of thought and memory.[93] 3)Atimanasa Kosa or “Supramental Mind”: is the intuitive layer.[94] 4)Vijinanamaya Kosa (“layer of the special knowledge”) or “Subliminal Mind”: is the layer of conscience or discrimination (viveka) and vaeragya (non-attachment).[95] 5)Hiranyamaya Kosa (“golden level”) or “Subtle Causal Mind”: is the subtlest layer. Here the awareness of mind is very close to the direct experience of “Supreme Consciousness”.[96]
  • Biopsychology: Ananda Marga “Biopsycology” explains how the traditional tantric science of chakras (“wheels”) with their subtle energies are related with the body through nerve plexi[97] as physiologic counterparts, influencing the associated endocrine glands with the neuroendocrine system and the psychic part of the body. The philosophy of Ananda Marga consider the human body as composed of the same five “fundamental factors” as the rest of the universe as explained in P.R. Sarkar’s theory of Brahmachakra.[98] Every factor is distributed throughout the body, but is controlled by a controlling nucleus, or cakra.[99] Mind’s propensities (vrttis) associated with each cakra affect the glands and the hormones secreted from those glands (hence the emotions, physical behaviour and functioning of the various body systems). But the glands and the hormones they secrete may also affect the mind[100] in a chain of feedbacks.
  • Microvita theory: “Microvita” is plural for “Micro-vitum” and literally means “micro-life”. The concept was first introduced on 1986 through a series of lectures by P.R. Sarkar. According to this intuitional theory microvita are entities which come within the realms both of physicality of psychic expression. They are smaller and subtler than physical atoms and subatomic particles, and in the psychic realm they may be subtler than mind–stuff. The author predicts that they will soon be recognized by conventional science.[101]

[] Social philosophy

The social outlook of Ananda Marga recognizes that the welfare of the individual is linked with the welfare of the collective, each relying on the other for its existence and dynamism. According to this philosophy everyone has the right to equal opportunities of life and development and as such there should be no discrimination on the basis of superficial barriers such as race, nationality and religion. Ananda Marga advocates a world of justice, security and peace for all. The Social Philosophy of Ananda Marga can be categorized under the topics:[102]

  • Neohumanism: in 1982, Sarkar extended his writings on the subject of human society with the introduction of his new theory of “Neohumanism”.[103] If humanism tends to contemplate only humans in a human-centric view, neohumanism, according to Sarkar’s theory, is instead the elevation of humanism to universalism.[104] This is because, as described in the theory of Brahmachakra, “all existing things are all expressions of the Supreme Consciousness”. According to this principle neohumanism gives preference to existential value over utility value of all living beings.

Sarkar’s neohumanism places great emphasis on rationality, the ability to discriminate between right and wrong, that distinguishes humans from other beings, encouraging what he calls “protopsychospirituality”.[105] According to Sarkar, rationality helps to give rise to devotion that he consider the highest sentiment of human beings. That’s why, in Ananda Marga’s vision, neohumanism leads to the liberation of human intellect from the constraints of imposed dogma and psychic complexes helping to bridge the gap between the inner and outer worlds.[106]

  • Education: according to the Ananda Marga system “Education is for Liberation.” Education means the simultaneous development in the physical, mental and spiritual realms of human existence. By this, dormant human potentialities will be awakened and put to proper use. As Sarkar made clear in his teachings, real education leads to a pervasive sense of love and compassion for all creation. in the Ananda Marga’s education system, special emphasis is given to moral education and the inculcation of idealism together with a proper psycho-pedagogical approach and an happy blending of occidental extroversial science and oriental introversial philosophy.[107]
  • PROUT (“Progressive Utilization Theory”): is a socio-economic theory first mentioned in 1959 by P. R. Sarkar[108] in his speech “The Cosmic Brotherood”.[109] PROUT or “Proutist Universal” is also a social movement promoted by people who are inspired by that theory. The proutist economy as described by Sarkar is a form of cooperative and decentralized economy that looks more at the collective welfare rather than to profit, without neglecting the promotion of the individual merits of each. “Progressive utilization” stands for the optimization and maximum utilization of natural, industrial and human resources on a sustainable basis for the entire ecosystem. This theory, that claims to overcome the limitations of both capitalism and communism with his Law of Social Cycle founded on Sarkar’s “Social Cycle Theory”, is not concerned solely with economics. According to its proponents encompasses the whole of individual and collective existence – physical, educational, social, political, mental, cultural and spiritual – not just for human beings but for all beings.[110]

[] Tantra in Ananda Marga

The six-pointed star is an ancient tantric symbol.

Tantra is established at the roots of the spiritual practices in Ananda Marga. Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar aka Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti has spoken extensively on the topic of Tantra, whose speeches were further published in various volumes. According to him,[111] tantra was first systematized by Shiva.[112] Tantra had its origin in India and South Asia (and in its Káshmiirii and Gaod’iiya Schools did exist before Shiva, but in a scattered and crude form).[113] Ánandamúrti explains that the practitioners of higher tantra “would look upon things from a broader point of view, renouncing all narrow thinking. They would always strive hard to advance the welfare of the masses. Through self-realization and selfless service they would overcome the fetters of the mind, such as hatred and shame. The unprepared practitioners who followed the less-developed or crude Tantra would yet behave in the opposite way, indulging in casteism, superstitions of untouchability, and in manifestations of hatred and envy in relation to other groups”.

Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti weaves continuity with the ancient philosophy of Tantra, infusing new insights in human psychology, social theory and in each individuals’ roles as spiritual and “socio-economic-cultural-political” beings.[114] Ánanda Márga Tantra has a broad metaphysical base which allows for ways of knowing, feeling and processing which go far beyond intelectuality or limited rationality. Priorities are given to the spiritual development, as Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti notes, “spiritual life controls all other arenas of human life.”[115] Ananda Marga Tantra is a principle, a science which if practiced will lead to the desired objective. The essence of Tantra is to awaken the latent spiritual force in the human personality and unify oneself with the Cosmic Consciousness.[116]

[] Guru and Disciple

According to tantric tradition a proper preceptor and a proper disciple are both essential for success on the path of Tantra. Shrii Shrii Anandamurti clearly explains[117] that, disciples are of three categories: 1) disciples that acquire spiritual knowledge when they are in close contact with the preceptor, but as soon as they are apart from him they forget all his/her teachings, 2) disciples that learn many things from the preceptor with great hardship, but do not take proper care to preserve those instructions. They lose their hard-earned knowledge out of negligence, 3)disciples that carefully preserves deep in their minds and hearts whatever they have learned from their preceptor by wisely putting those teachings into practice. This is the best category of disciples.

[] Symbology

[] Pratiik – The Symbol of Ananda Marga

Ananda-pratik.svg

The pratiik is a yantra, and summarizes the ideology of Ananda Marga in one image. The pratiik is composed of two interconnected triangles where one points upwards and the other points downwards. In the center of the triangle there is a rising sun, and in the core of the rising sun a swastika. Interpretation: 1)Triangle pointing downwards: signifies inner development, knowledge, insight or meditation, 2)Triangle pointing upwards: signifies external action or service to all. In one’s life the two basic aspects, the inner and outer, need to be continuously balanced. Therefore the inner knowledge without action is meaningless, and the deeds without proper guidance from within are fruitless, 3)The rising sun signifies progress or devotional awakening which arises from the balance of inner development and external service, 4)The swastika represents spiritual victory, the goal of life, which is all-round fulfillment and spiritual emancipation. (Svastika comes from the Sanskrit word sv (good) and asti (to be), literally meaning absolute positivity, goodness, or perfect life.)

[] Literary production

The Ananda Marga literary production is very wide and is largely related to the books of P. R. Sarkar and from many of his disciples. Between 1955 and 1990 the founder of AMPS wrote a total of 261 books in English, Bengali and Hindi. He wrote in the name Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar when treating sociology, economics, philology and various other subjects, included children’s tales; and in the name Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti when focusing on spiritual topics. Many of his books he gave as dictations; others were compiled from his discourses, some of them in small inspirational pocket-books.[118]

The first book of Ananda Marga was Ananda Marga Elementary Philosophy.[119] It was originally published in Bengali in the year 1955 (the same year the book was translated in Hindi and later on published in English). This book continues to hold its place as an introduction to the entire AMPS philosophy. In the same year Sarkar’s Problems of the Day[19] was published. In the book the author explains key concepts of his ideas: “We are all citizens of this universe. The universe is the thought-projection of the Macrocosmic Mind, and it is in the extroversial and introversial phases of the Cosmic imaginative flow that the creation, preservation and destruction of all entities continues.” “Parama Purusa (Supreme Consciouness) is our Father, Parama Prakrti (Supreme Operative Principle) is our Mother, and the Universe is our homeland”. Another important book in three volumes is Ananda Marga Caryácarya,[120] published for the first time in 1956. This is the social treatise (samája shástra) of Ananda Marga. These three volumes set out both the organization and the cultural basis of the Ananda Marga movement. Part 1 describes AMPS governing boards and committees, and guidelines for social functions. Part 2 gives many guidelines for conduct in a progressive society i.e., a society of individuals moving towards the Supreme. Part 3 contains all the dos and don’ts related to physical health that must be followed for progress in mental and spiritual sádhaná.[121]

The fourth book dictated on 1957 from Sarkar as Anandamurti was A Guide to Human Conduct.[122] Herein the author explains the cardinal principles of morality together with the ancient teachings of self– control and selfless conduct, and at the same time places those principles on a clear scientific basis. On his (later expanded) volume Yogic Treatment and Natural Remedies,[23] 1958, Sarkar gives practical advices on Natural Remedies using yogic exercise, water, diet, herbal medicines, sunlight and air. In his sixth book Idea and Ideology,[24] a collection of speeches delivered to higher Tattvika trainees from 27 May 1959 to 5 June 1959, Sarkar methodically explains, in a careful sequence, spiritual and social practices. Here is described for the first time a socio-economic theory which Sarkar called “Progressive Utilization Theory”, known by the acronym Prout. It concludes by using the spiritual vantage that has been gained to focus on the social problems of the earth.

On Ánanda Sútram,[26] 1961, Anandamurti condensed in a few strokes all his spiritual and social Philosophy. Ánanda Sútram means “aphorisms leading to ánanda, divine bliss. In the traditions of sutra literature the sútra form has been valued over the centuries as a powerful tool for communicating a deep philosophy in a condensed way. The eighty–five sútras of this book serve, with breathtaking conciseness, as a framework for the entire Ananda Marga ideology.

A large part of Sarkar’s ideas are collected in the series of books called Subháśita Samgraha, which form part of the philosophical scriptures of Ánanda Márga ideology. The Subhásita Samgraha (“Collected Discourses”) series assembles all the Dharma Mahácakra (DMC)[123] discourses given by the author as Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti.

[] Bibliography

This is an incomplete list of Sarkar/Anandamurti most important and better known literary works:

  • Ánanda Márga Elementary Philosophy[119]
  • Problems of the Day[19]
  • Ananada Marga Caryacarya, (Parts 1, 2, 3)[120]
  • A Guide to Human Conduct[122]
  • Yogic Treatments and Natural Remedies[23]
  • Idea and Ideology[24]
  • Ánanda Sútram[26]
  • Subháśita Samgraha
  • Ánanda Vacanámrtam
  • Ananda Vanii Samgraha
  • Birds and Animals, Our Neighbours
  • Discourses on Krsna and the Giita
  • Discourses on the Mahábhárata
  • Discourses on Neo– humanist Education
  • Discourses on Prout – Progressive Utilization Theory
  • Discourses on Tantra (Volumes 1, 2)
  • Namah Shiváya Shántáya
  • Human Society (Parts 1, 2)
  • In the Land of Hattamala
  • Karma Yoga
  • Light Comes
  • Microvitum in a nutshell
  • Namah Shiváya Shántáya
  • Namámi Krsnasundaram
  • The Liberation of Intellect: Neo–humanism
  • Proutist Economics – Discourses on economic liberation
  • Rarh – The Cradle of Civilization
  • Samgiita: Song, Dance and instrumental Music
  • Sarkar’s English Grammar and Composition
  • Sarkar’s Short Stories
  • Shabda Cayaniká (“A Collection of Words”: an unfinished, twenty-six volume dictated encyclopedia on the Bengali language)
  • Strange Experiences
  • The Thoughts of P. R. Sarkar
  • Under the Fathomless Depths of the blue Sea
  • Yoga Psychology

[] Musical production

On September 14, 1982 P. R. Sarkar composed Bandhu He Niye Calo at Deoghar, India. This was the first of a large collection of songs. Over the span of eight years the songs grew rich in content, style and variety. The compositions are known as Prabháta Saḿgiita (‘Songs of the New Dawn’). On October 20, 1990, the day before P. R. Sarkar’s departure, the number of songs stood at a 5,018. His last song composition, A’mra’ Gar’e Nobo Gurukul, was on the establishment of the Gurukul (University) of which he had founded on September 7, 1990 in order to carry on his legacy through education and research.[124]

[] False accusations of involvement of three Ananda Marga members in terrorist acts in Australia

On 13 February 1978 some members of Ananda Marga were falsely alleged to have been involved on the bombing of the Sydney Hilton activities during the Commonwealth Heads of Government Regional Meeting in Australia and, on 15 June 1978 on the conspiracy to murder the leader of the Australian National Front, Robert Cameron. Evidence subsequently produced in court showed that Ananada Marga had been closely watched by the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO) since the movement arrived in Australia in the early 1970s. This included telephone taps, and other surveillance methods. Subsequent to the appeal to the High Court, a judicial inquiry in New South Wales cast doubt over police informer, Richard Seary, a prosecution witness, on whose affidavits was primarily based prosecution.[125] After a long judicial history the main prosecution witness was recognised as unreliable and the AM members were acquitted.[126][127][128][129][130][131]

The perpertrators have never been found. Evidence that Australian security forces may have been responsible led to the New South Wales parliament unanimously calling for an inquiry in 1991[1] and 1995.[2] The Government of Australia vetoed any inquiry.

References

[] Citations

  1. ^ Initially a qualitative attribute of Brahmā, it became, especially in Vedānta, the consciousness that is free from all entanglements in samādhi. It is usually found in association with sat and cit, hence in the fused form, Satchidānanda, Being, Consciousness, Bliss…John Bowker (April 14, 2012). “Ānanda.” The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Encyclopedia.com.
  2. ^ Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary at the word ānanda: “m. joy , delight , happiness (also pl.) AV. VS. &c”
  3. ^ In Hinduism and Buddhism, the way or path to release or enlightenment.John Bowker (April 14, 2012). “Mārga.” The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Encyclopedia.com.
  4. ^ Word mārga on Monier-William Sanskrit-English on-line dictionary: “the right way, proper course MBh. Hariv. (cf. āmārga” or “a way, manner method, custom, usage Up. Yājñ. MBh. &c”
  5. ^ Hermans, G. Immink, C. A. M.; A. De Jong, J. Van Der Lans (20012001). Social Constructionism and Theology. BRILL. p. 47. ISBN 90-04-12318-0.
  6. ^ a b Chryssides, George D. (1999). Exploring New Religions. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 370. ISBN 0-8264-5959-5.
  7. ^ According with many Eastern and Western spiritual traditions, master and disciples often have a spiritual name in addition to that given to them by their parents.
  8. ^ Ánandamúrti, as he was called by his early disciples, is a sanscrit word meaning “Bliss personified”.
  9. ^ See: Ahtrens, Wolfgang (1982-1997). Die Weisheit der Tantralehre. Mainz: Dharma Verlag. ISBN 3-921769-04-3. p.6.
  10. ^ Ishwaran, Karigoudar (1999). Ascetic Culture: Renunciation and Worldly Engagement. Brill Publishers. p. 9. ISBN 90-04-11412-2.
  11. ^ For a short list of the principal AMPS centers see: Short list of Ananda Marga centers around the world
  12. ^ For a short list of the principal AMPS centers and service projects see:Ananda Marga service
  13. ^ Shravan is the fifth month of the Hindu year, beginning in late July and ending in the third week of August. It is the month of festivals and commemorate the precedence of the sacred over all aspects of life. It is the holiest month in the year and it includes celebrating Nag Panchami on the fifth day of the bright half of the month.
  14. ^ Shravani Purnima is the full moon in the sacred month of Shravan. On Shraavana Poornima Raksha Bandhan, the festival of brothers and sisters, is celebrated .
  15. ^ Shrii Shrii Anandamurti clearly explained in his books the meaning of Tantra: “What is Tantra? The process of transforming (latent divinity) into the Supreme Divinity is known as Tantra sadhana… The significance of the term tantra is ‘liberation from bondage (the bondage of dullness or staticity)’. The letter ta is the seed (sound) of dulness. And the root verb trae suffixed by da becomes tra, which means ‘that which liberates’ – so the spiritual practice which liberates the aspirant from the dullness or animality of the static force and expands the aspirant’s (spiritual) self is Tantra sadhana. SO there cannot be any spiritual practice without Tantra. Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (Ac. Vijayananda Avt. Editor) (1994). Discourses on Tantra. 2. AMPS-Ananda Printers. “Tantra in itself is neither a religion nor an ‘ism’. Tantra is a fundamental spiritual science. So wherever there is any spiritual practice it should be taken for granted that it stands on the Tantric cult. Where there is no spiritual practice, where people pray to God for the fulfillment of narrow worldly desires, where people’s only slogan is “Give us this and give us that” – only there do we find that Tantra is discouraged. So only those who do not understand Tantra, or even after understanding Tantra do not want to do any spiritual practice, oppose the cult of Tantra.” Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1959). Tantra and its Effect on Society. Ananda Marga Pubs.
  16. ^ a b Dharmavedananda, Ácárya, 1999, p. 13 to 23.
  17. ^ He wrote in the name of Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar when discussing sociology, economics, philology and various other subjects including children’s tales, and in the name Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti when focusing on spiritual topics.
  18. ^ On this first book Shrii Shrii Anandamurti explained the elementary philosophy of the Ánanda Márga mission.Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1955). Ánanda Márga Elementary Philosophy. Ananda Marga Pubs.
  19. ^ a b c Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (1957-1968). Problems of the Day. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81-7252-19-0.
  20. ^ Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti (1995-6th ed.). Ananada Marga Caryacarya,. Ananda Marga Publications.
  21. ^ Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1957-(1981)). A Guide to Human Conduct. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81–7252–103–0.
  22. ^ RAWA was founded at a Dharma Maha Chakra (DMC) held at the house of one of Sarkar’s disciples, Aniruddha Prasad.
  23. ^ a b c Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan (1957 first ed. in Bengali, 1983 first ed. in English). Yogic Treatments and Natural Remedies. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81–7252–178–2.
  24. ^ a b c Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (Ac. Pranavnanda Avt. Editor) (1961-2001). Idea and Ideology. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81-7252-205-3.
  25. ^ “Home of PROUT”. Prout.org. http://www.prout.org/. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
  26. ^ a b c Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1961). Ánanda Sútram. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81– 7252– 027– 1.
  27. ^ For a full explanation of all the aphorisms see (Avadhūtika Ānanda Mitra Ācāryā, 1981)
  28. ^ WWD was started to empower women to contribute and alleviate suffering of women in many parts of the world.
  29. ^ “Ananda Marga Disaster Relief”. AMURT. http://www.amurt.net/. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
  30. ^ “Amurt ORG”. Amurt.org. http://www.amurt.org/. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
  31. ^ “AMURT Italia – Volontariato Internazionale – Adozioni a distanza, donazioni, sostegno e volontariato”. Amurt.it. http://www.amurt.it/. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
  32. ^ a b c Ng, Franklin (1995). The Asian American Encyclopedia. Marshall Cavendish. p. 669. ISBN 1-85435-677-1.
  33. ^ a b c Miller, Timothy (1999). The 60′s Communes: Hippies and Beyond. Syracuse University Press. p. 108. ISBN 0-8156-0601-X.
  34. ^ The International Commission of Jurists (Geneva) and The International League for the Rights of Man (New York) (August 9, 1976). “Report on the Ananda Marga leader Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar (Baba) in Patna, India”. http://proutglobe.org/prsarkarlegal/Sheppard-Report-9Aug1976.pdf. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
  35. ^ “Religion: Violent Bliss”. Time Magazine. May 14, 1973. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,907243,00.html. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
  36. ^ Garda Ghista (January 20, 2011). P.R. Sarkar: Beacon of Hope for Suffering Humanity. AuthorHouse.
  37. ^ “40 Years Since Sarkar Was Jailed, Poisoned”. Prout Global. January 2011. http://www.proutglobe.org/2011/09/40-years-since-sarkar-was-jailed-poisoned/. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
  38. ^ Prins, Herschel A. (2005). Offenders, Deviants Or Patients?. Psychology Press. p. 251. ISBN 1-58391-824-8.
  39. ^ (Barker 1989: 168, see also 54-5).
  40. ^ a b Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and Plants (PCAP).
  41. ^ As part of their investigation, the anti-terrorist squad discovered documents with bomb-making instructions and a copy of The Anarchist Cookbook at the organization’s London headquarters. Three weeks prior to the attack, one of the plotters had thrown a brick through the window of the New Bond Street office of Air India. The attached note called on Moraji Desai, the current Indian Prime Minister, to release Sarkar or he will have “blood on his hands”. The initial plan was to shoot the High Commissioner in his car, but this was abandoned for security reasons. On the next attempt, they decided to stab the Commission’s commercial counsellor, but that also failed when the would-be assassin could not go through with the attack. Finally, one of the other plotters stabbed a junior Indian government employee, when he was mistaken for the commercial counsellor. The victim suffered a punctured lung and internal bleeding, but recovered with medical help. See Birmingham Evening Mail, Saturday, November 4, 1978
  42. ^ See Times of India, July 5, 1978
  43. ^ MacDougall, Curtis Daniel (1983). Superstition and the Press. Prometheus Books. p. 446. ISBN 0-87975-211-4.
  44. ^ On this subject see Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (1982). The Liberation of Intellect: Neohumanism. Kolkata: Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81–7252–168–5. and Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar (1987). Neohumanism in a Nutshell vol 1 and 2. Kolkata: Ananda Marga Publications. , Avadhūtika Ānanda Mitra Ācāryā (1986). Neo-humanist Education: Education for a New World. Ananda Marga Publications. . See also Acarya Prasiidananda Avadhuta (1990). Neo-Humanist Ecology. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 971-8623-12-4.
  45. ^ Sanskrit for “one who teaches through example”.
  46. ^ For more information see: Renaissence Universal.
  47. ^ For more detailed information: pwsa.org
  48. ^ womenswelfare.net
  49. ^ For an example of AMURT activities see: amurt.org or amurt.net or amurthaiti
  50. ^ “AMURT Global Network: Disaster Relief, Sustainable Development, Community Service”. official website of AMURT U.S.A.. http://www.amurt.net/.
  51. ^ Guidelines for PCAP in “Handbook for Ananda Marga organization” Berlin 1977. See also: Sarkar, P. R., 1982.
  52. ^ For an example of RAWA structure see: rawa.asia
  53. ^ Example of Rawa activities in Brazil: rawafest
  54. ^ For more detailed information: ERAWS or eraws.com or amyogaspace-eraws
  55. ^ A gurukul or Guru Kula (Sanskrit guru “teacher” or “master”; kul domain, from kula, “extended family”) which literally means “the family or home of the teacher” is a type of school in India based on the ancient traditional system of education ([1]). In a gurukul students reside together as equals, irrespective of their social standing in strict contact with the master.
  56. ^ A Guru Kula is generally: “residential in nature, with shishyas living in proximity to the guru, often within the same house (Cheong Cheng Yin et al., 2002). In a gurukul, shishyas reside together as equals, irrespective of their social standing, learn from the guru and help the guru in his day-to-day life, including the carrying out of mundane chores such as washing clothes, cooking, etc. The guru-shishya tradition (parampara) is a hallowed one in Hinduism and appears in other religious groups in India, such as Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
  57. ^ Ananda-Marga-Gurukula University
  58. ^ AMGK is an autonomous “Board of Education” for all AMGK schools and institutes run as per neo-humanist philosophy. NHE-Forum of AMGK deals with K-12 education and CNS-Forum of AMGK concentrates on higher education.
  59. ^ See books Discourses on Tantra, 1994, volumes 1 and 2.
  60. ^ Sensual or erotic tantra, as the term “tantra” is often mistakenly associated to in the West, is not a part of the original tantra nor of the Ananda Marga tantra tradition. Sarkar, in his book on the historical Shiva, Namah Shiváya Shántáya ((Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, 1985), and on Discourses on Tantra Vol. 1 (Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, 1994, vol. 1), explains the difference between the “left path tantra“, the “right path tantra” and the “middle path tantra” (or the “subtle path tantra“), by giving a clarification of panchamakara, also known as the “5 Ms”.
  61. ^ The practitioner of Ananda Marga tantra yoga sees the nature of the mind as a “trapped monkey” striving to escape from its cage. The tantra path is the path of the brave, because it requires the practitioner to follow strict disciplines as to their spiritual practice. Through daily meditation the practitioners face their minds’ deepest secrets and contents, and to proceed in the practice s/he must manage to overcome whatever obstacles s/he faces in the path of self emancipation. Because the path may be specially challenging in the beginning, often requiring changes of lifestyle habits and mental breakthroughs that supersede dogmas and ingrained irrational beliefs, many people stray temporarily from the path when not able to succeed in triumphing over the initial difficulties.
  62. ^ Who is the guru? In Ananda Sutram, on sutra 3-9, P. R. Sarkar as Shri Shri Anandamurti clearly stated Brahmaeva gururekah náparah: Only Brahma is the guru, no one else. Who is Brahma is explained in the first sutra (1-1): Shivashaktyátmakam Brahma: Brahma is the composite of Shiva and Shakti
  63. ^ That is often likened by “yogis of knowledge” (jinániis) to a sharp razor. Through devotional practices however, the spiritual path is compared to the all-round struggle of a blooming flower. It is also stated in the tantric tradition that “the student doesn’t find the teacher, but the teacher finds the student”.
  64. ^ An acarya is most commonly a monk or nun, but in the Ananda Marga tradition there are also “family acaryas“. In the initiation the aspirant makes a commitment to practice meditation and to live in harmony with the universal balance, and is then taught the technique itself. The aspirant is then required to keep the individual lessons personal.
  65. ^ This is the short list of six lessons: 1)First Lesson: Iishvara Pranidhana (Personal mantra and Ishta Cakra), 2)Second Lesson: Guru Mantra (Personal Guru Mantra), 3)Third Lesson: Tattva Dharana (Concentration on Cakras’ Tattvas), 4)Fourth Lesson: Sadharana Pranayama (Basic Pranayama. A special respiration tecnique), 5)Fifth Lesson: Cakra Shodhana (Purification of Cakras. A special type of Dharana), 6)Sixth Lesson: Guru Dhyana (Special type of ideation for Dhyana) For a detailed explanation of the lessons see [2].
  66. ^ There is no specific system as to when one can learn a new technique, but it depends on the level of interest and dedication of the student. Thus some students learn all six lessons in a year or two, while some complete all lessons in over 20 years.
  67. ^ According with the teachings of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, Lalita Marmika is a devotional dance invented by Parvatii, the wife of Shiva.
  68. ^ Eg. grains, fruits, dried fruits, seeds, beans, most vegetables, edible seaweed, milk, yogurt and some dairy products, salt, sugar, honey, mild spices, herbal tea, apple vinegar etc..
  69. ^ Eg. strong spices, red chicory, coffee, black tea, soft drinks, chocolate, etc..
  70. ^ Eg. meat, fish, eggs, with all derived products, sharp cheese, onions, leeks, chives, garlic, mushrooms, mustard, alcohol, strong spices in high quantities, etc.
  71. ^ Ananda Marga acharyas practice fasting in two additional days per month called Purnima and Amavasya
  72. ^ The following are the Ananda Marga Asanas as listed from Shrii Shrii Anandamurti in “Ananda Marga Caryacarya part 3″: Sarvanungasana, Matsyamudra, Matsyasana, Matsyendrasana, Virasana, Cakrasana, Naokasana (or Dhanurasana), Utkata Pascimottanasana, Parvatasana (or Halasana), Shivasana, Vajrasana, Siddhasana, Baddha Padmasana, Kukkutasana, Gomukhasana, Mayurasana, Kurmakasana, Sahaja Utkatasana, Shalabhasana, Bhujaungasana, Shashaungasana, Bhastrikasana, Janushirasana, Ardhashivasana, Ardhakurmakasana (or Dirgha Pranama), Yogasana (or Yogamudra), Tuladandasana, Ustrasana, Utkata Kurmakasana, Jatila Utkatasana, Utkata Vajrasana, Padahastasana, Shivasana, Padmasana, Karmasana, Jinanasana, Bhavasana, Granthimuktasana, Garudasana, Dvisamakonasana, Tejasana, Mandukasana.
  73. ^ Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, 2010, p.20.
  74. ^ But preferably twice, in the morning and in the evening. After the practice a full body self-massage and a final yogic relaxation is advisable.
  75. ^ Mudras and bandhas are also listed in “Ananda Marga Caryacarya part 3″: Uddayana Mudra, Bandhatraya Yoga (Mahamudra, Mahabandha, Mahaveda), Parthivii Mudra, Ambhasii Mudra, Agneyii Mudra, Vayavii Mudra, Akashii Mudra, Manasii Mudra, Agnisara Mudra, Kakacaincu Mudra, Trimunda Mudra, Ashvinii Mudra, Vajrolii Mudra.
  76. ^ Advanced informations for Ananda Marga yoga teachers are explained in (Ananda Marga Aa. Vv., 1973, 2nd ed.).
  77. ^ On the book the author specifically warns the reader not to risk of practising ásanas and mudrás without the guidance of an experienced yoga teacher.
  78. ^ The spiritual ideation is carried along with the dance in order to establish a subtle link with the divine.
  79. ^ Associated with Shiva in his cosmic dancer image of Nataraja.
  80. ^ Thus the dance also has an associated ideation. The dancer starts off with the two arms outstretched, the left arm with an open palm, and the right arm with a clenched fist. The dancer ideates holding a human skull in the left hand, symbolizing death, and ideates on holding a knife in the right, symbolizing the fight for life. The actual objects (human skull and knife) may be also used. The dance starts with a jump and landing in a position of bent knees. Another jump follows, and the dance continues in a jumping manner lifting one leg then the other continuously. Tribuneindia.com story
  81. ^ “Religion and Law Consortium: A Research Forum for Legal Developments on International Law and Religion or Belief Topics”. Religlaw.org. http://www.religlaw.org/template.php?id=2314. Retrieved 2011-03-18.
  82. ^ See: Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti, 1954, pp. 15 and 68.
  83. ^ This universe, having been created by the ‘Supreme Consciousness’, is existing in the ‘Supreme Entity’: “The ‘Supreme Entity’ is the vastest entity; the ultimate source of all cosmic emanations. The ‘Supreme Entity’, which is difficult to conceive, is the subtlest of the subtle. He is farther away than any other entity, but again He is nearer than the nearest. Only the one who looks into the innermost recesses of himself can realize the ‘Supreme Entity’.” (Shrii Shrii Anandamurti)
  84. ^ In his famous discourse “Sambhúti and Mahásambhúti” given on July 1967, Delhi, India during the DMC (Dharma Maha Chakra) Shrii Shrii Anandamurti well explained this concept: “In short, whatever was created in the past is the original creation (sambhúti) of God. The sum total of all creations is the Cosmic Order (Brahmáńd́a). This includes the sun as well as the small ant which crawls on the earth. Whether it is a dead star or a living star, whether it is a nebula or a milky way or a galaxy – all belong to one universal family.” Taraka Brahma.
  85. ^ Thus it is said: “Brahma is the absolute truth, and the universe is also truth, but relative.” The diversities of this universe are the transitory transformations of part of His infinite cosmic “body” in a never-ending flow. This implies that life and the universe will never end, but that parts of it are continuously being created from Him and concurrently merging back into Him.
  86. ^ “All created beings are children of the Supreme Being, part of the one universal Cosmic family. Thus we are all brothers and sisters, connected in love and consciousness by the bonds of Cosmic fraternity. This world of diversity has evolved out of unity (Supreme Consciousness), and we must continually strive to see the unity within all diversity and act accordingly”. (Shrii Shrii Anandamurti)
  87. ^ See: Ananda Marga Spiritual Philosophy
  88. ^ All these concepts are extensively explained on (Sarkar, P. R., 1961-2001). This book is a collection of lectures (later published as “Idea and Ideology”) given by the author in 1959. Many concepts have been further explored in subsequent speeches.
  89. ^ According to this theory the “unit minds” come out of matter and solid matter has originated from mind (the “cosmic mind”).
  90. ^ Vis’aya purus’a’vabha’shah jiiva’tma’: “The reflection of Consciousness – Purusa – in the unit object is known as jiiva’tma – “unit soul” – (A’nanda Sutram, Chapter 2, Sutra 8 (2-8) in Avadhūtika Ānanda Mitra Ācāryā, 1981).
  91. ^ The last three deeper layers are collectively called “Causual Mind”. “Causal” signifies that these layers are in the most direct contact with the “Causal Consciousness” from which the mind has evolved and within which it exists. see Anandamarga.org
  92. ^ It’s developed through diet and physical exercise. In Ananda Marga practice it is also developed through asanas, Tandava and Kaoshikii.
  93. ^ This Kosa gives experience of pleasure and pain. It is developed naturally through physical clash, and in Ananda Marga sadhana by pranayama with cosmic ideation.
  94. ^ This Kosa gives the capacity of intuitive dreams, clairvoyance, telepathy and creative insight. It is developed naturally through psychic clash, and in Ananda Marga sadhana by methods of pratyahara (withdrawal) such as shuddhis and Guru Puja.
  95. ^ This Kosa is developed naturally through psychic clash, and its development is accelerated by the process of dharana.
  96. ^ Here there is only the separation of a thin veil of ignorance. This Kosa is developed naturally through the attraction for the Great, and dhyana accelerates this process for sadhakas (spirituals aspirants).
  97. ^ Complexe networks of intersecting nerves.
  98. ^ The physical body is a part of Saincara, whereas the mind is a part of Pratisaincara.
  99. ^ The cakras are like substations of the mind – each controlling their own assigned area. And just as the mind functions directly through the brain, the cakras function through their own physical counterparts – the endocrine glands. The biopsychology of Ananda Marga expands with further explanations the concept of the seven basic chakras and in general, mainly considers: 1)The Muladhara Cakra: at the tip of the spine (controls the solid factor). 2)The Svadhisthana Cakra: at the level of the genitals (controls the liquid factor and is associated with the reproductive glands). 3)The Manipura Cakra: at the level of the navel (controls the luminous factor and is associated with Pancreas). 4)The Anahata Cakra: at the center of the chest (controls the aerial factor and is associated with Thymus). 5)The Vishuddha Cakra: at the throat (controls the ethereal factor and is associated with the Thyroid gland). 6)The Ajina Cakra: between the eyebrows (associated with the Pituitary gland). 7)The Sahasrara Cakra: at the crown of the head (associated with the Pineal gland).
  100. ^ For more details see Ananda Marga.org
  101. ^ Sarkar, P. R., 1988-1991.
  102. ^ Ananda Marga Social Philosophy
  103. ^ See: Sarkar, P. R., 1982.
  104. ^ “When the underlying spirit of humanism is extended to everything, animate and inanimate, in this universe – I have designated this as “Neohumanism”. This Neohumanism will elevate humanism to universalism, the cult of love for all created beings of this universe.” (Sarkar, P. R., 1982).
  105. ^ A process of continually recognizing each object with which we come in contact, externally or internally, as a manifestation of consciousness.
  106. ^ See: Sarkar, P. R., 1987 (vol. 1 and 2).
  107. ^ “The noblest form of social service is to educate the public and create a sense of consciousness in them. This sense of consciousness is to be instilled in every human being. This is your duty. The goal of education is to elevate the all-round standard, and especially the intellectual standard. In addition, the elevation of the moral standard is extremely necessary in the sphere of education. This moral standard is deficient today. It is lacking in the present educational system also. You are to create a new social order. Therefore, you should first acquire more and more knowledge in different spheres of life and also you are to upgrade your morality. Along with your intellectual standard, if you have morality, then everybody will respect you. Try to acquire as much knowledge as possible through our own books. Education which leads to the acquisition of knowledge plus morality makes for a peaceful society.” (Sarkar, P. R., Discourses on Neo– humanist Education.).
  108. ^ Craig, Edward, ed. (1998). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Sociology of knowledge to Zaroastrianism. Routledge (Taylor & Francis). ISBN 0-415-16916-X.
  109. ^ Later published in Sarkar, P. R. (1961-2001) p. 89-97.
  110. ^ See: [* PROUT Globe or Proutist Universal.
  111. ^ Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti, 1985.
  112. ^ Also called Sadashiva, who, according to Indian spiritual tradition, was an enlightened yogi living in the Himalayas about 7000 years ago.
  113. ^ Shiva was born and brought up in an environment of tantra, although it was not classical tantra. He was the original propounder of tantra, collecting, developing and systematizing all its branches.
  114. ^ Shrii Shrii Anandamurti said: "A person who, irrespective of caste, creed or religion, aspires for spiritual expansion or does something concrete, is a Tantric. Tantra' in itself is neither a religion nor an 'ism'. Tantra is a fundamental spiritual science. So wherever there is any spiritual practice it should be taken for granted that it stands on the Tantric cult. Where there is no spiritual practice, where people pray to God for the fulfilment of narrow worldly desires, where people’s only slogan is “Give us this and give us that” – only there do we find that Tantra is discouraged. So only those who do not understand Tantra, or even after understanding Tantra do not want to do any spiritual practice, oppose the cult of Tantra". (Sarkar, P. R., 1959).
  115. ^ Homo Tantricus: Tantra as an Episteme for Future Generations by Marcus Bussey,www.gurukul.edu
  116. ^ "It is not a religion or empty philosophy which can be confined to the realms of abstract speculation or theoretical debate. Tantra is a process of subjective transformation, which may be practiced by anyone irrespective of gender, cultural background, education, social status or intellectual evolution, as an adequate system of spiritual endeavor is the birthright of all. Tantra does not discriminate by any racial, genealogical, political, national or economic differences amongst human beings, as the later might form the basis for one human group to assert superiority over another. Tantra does, however, give recognition to individual vigor and the development of latent human potentialities, which make some people outstand in their lives. Consequently Tantra puts greater emphasis on human values than on social values".(Coyle, G. 1985).
  117. ^ See: Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, 1982 and 1994.
  118. ^ For a partial list see [3].
  119. ^ a b Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1955). Ánanda Márga Elementary Philosophy. Ananda Marga Pubs.
  120. ^ a b Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti (1956-1995-6th ed.). Ananada Marga Caryacarya, part=1, 2, 3. Ananda Marga Publications.
  121. ^ See [4].
  122. ^ a b Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1957-1981). A Guide to Human Conduct. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81–7252–103–0.
  123. ^ Dharma Mahácakras: large spiritual congregations addressed by Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti, were held in cities and towns all over the world.
  124. ^ For an incomplete list of the Prabháta Saḿgiita see [5].
  125. ^ “Responding to Custody Levels – Compensation for Miscarriage of Justice”. http://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/sinodisp/au/other/IndigLRes/car/1993/6/21.html.
  126. ^Alister v R (“Hilton Bombing case”) [1984 HCA 85."]. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/1984/85.html.
  127. ^Alister v R (“Hilton Bombing case”) per Murphy J (2) para 2 [1984 HCA 85."]. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/1984/85.html.
  128. ^Alister v R (“Hilton Bombing case”) per Wilson & Dawson JJ para 17 [1984 HCA 85."]. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/1984/85.html.
  129. ^ “Parliament Hansard: Hilton Hotel Bombing”. Government of New South Wales. December 9, 1991. http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/hansart.nsf/V3Key/LA19911209005. Retrieved 2008-03-13. (First motion for an inquiry)
  130. ^ Pip Wilson (February 13, 2003). “Lies, spies and the Sydney Hilton bombing”. Archived from the original on 3 March 2008. http://www.wilsonsalmanac.com/hilton.html. Retrieved 2008-03-16.
  131. ^ Ben Hills. The Hilton Fiasco. SMH 12 February 1998, p.11 http://www.benhills.com/articles/articles/SCM38a.html (accessed 6 September 2010)

[] Sources

  • Avadhūtika Ānanda Mitra Ācāryā (1981). The Spiritual Philosophy of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti: a Commentary on Ananda Sutram. DenverColorado: Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81–7252–154–5.
  • Barker, Eileen (1989) New Religious Movements: A Practical Introduction (London: HMSO). Third impression, with amendments, 1992.
  • Coyle, Gary (1985). Progressive socialism. Calcutta: Proutist Universal Publications.
  • Hermans, G. Immink, C. A. M.; A. De Jong, J. Van Der Lans (2001). Social Constructionism and Theology. BRILL. p. 47. ISBN 90-04-12318-0.
  • Bowker, John (2012). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Encyclopedia.com.
  • Ahtrens, Wolfgang (1982-1987). Die Weisheit der Tantralehre. Mainz: Dharma Verlag. ISBN 3-921769-04-3.
  • Dharmavedananda, Ácárya (1999). Travel with the Mystic Master. Singapore: Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 981-04-0864-1.
  • Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (1955). Ánanda Márga Elementary Philosophy. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81–7252–117–0.
  • Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (1961). Ánanda Sútram. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81– 7252– 027– 1.
  • Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (1957-1981). A Guide to Human Conduct. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81–7252–103–0.
  • Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (1959). Tantra and its Effect on Society. Ananda Marga Pubs.
  • Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (Ac. Vijayananda Avt. Editor) (1994). Discourses on Tantra, vol. 1. Ananda Marga-Ananda Printers. ISBN 81–7252–112–X.
  • Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (Ac. Vijayananda Avt. Editor) (1994). Discourses on Tantra, vol. 2. Ananda Marga-Ananda Printers. ISBN 81–7252–112–X.
  • Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (Ac. Narayanananda Avt. Editor, Ac. Vijayananda Avt. transl. from Bengali)) (1985). Namah Shivaya Shantaya. Ananda Marga-Ananda Printers. ISBN 81-7252-098-0.
  • Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (Ac. Sarvatmananda Avt. Editor) (2010-originally published in Bengali: 1958). Yoga Sadhana. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 978-81-7252-245-2.
  • Ng, Franklin (1995). The Asian American Encyclopedia. Marshall Cavendish. p. 669. ISBN 1-85435-677-1.
  • MacDougall, Curtis Daniel (1983). Superstition and the Press. Prometheus Books. p. 446. ISBN 0-87975-211-4.
  • Miller, Timothy (1999). The 60′s Communes: Hippies and Beyond. Syracuse University Press. p. 108. ISBN 0-8156-0601-X.
  • Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (Ac. Pranavnanda Avt. Editor) (1961-2001). Idea and Ideology. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81-7252-205-3.
  • Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (Ac. Krsnatmananda Avt. Editor) (1988-1991). Microvitum in a nutshell. Ananda Marga-Ananda Printers.
  • Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (1957-1968). Problems of the Day. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81-7252-19-0.
  • Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (1982). The Liberation of Intellect: Neohumanism. Kolkata: Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81–7252–168–5.
  • Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (1987). Neohumanism in a Nutshell, vol. 1. Kolkata: Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81-7252-184-7.
  • Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (1987). Neohumanism in a Nutshell, vol. 2. Kolkata: Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81-7252-184-7.
  • Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (1957 first ed. in Bengali, 1983 first ed. in English). Yogic Treatments and Natural Remedies. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81–7252–178–2.
  • Cheong Cheng, Cheong Cheng Yin; et al. (eds.) (2002). Subject Teaching and Teacher Education in the New Century: Research and Innovation. Springer. p. 194. ISBN 962-949-060-9.

[] Further reading

  • Hatley, Shaman and Inayatullah, Sohail. (1999),”Karma Samnyasa: Sarkar’s reconceptualization of Indian ascetism”, in K. Ishwaran, ed., Ascetic culture: renunciation and worldly engagement (Leiden, Brill,Vol. 73, International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology),139-152
  • Inayatullah, Sohail. (2002) Understanding Sarkar: The Indian Episteme, Macrohistory and Transformative Knowledge. Leiden: Brill.
  • Tarak. (1990). Ananda Marga, social and spiritual practices. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.
  • Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii. (1988). Ananda Marga ideology and way of life in a nutshell. Calcutta: Ānanda Mārga Pracāraka Saṁgha.
  • Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (1995-6th ed.). Ananada Marga Caryacarya, part=1. Ananda Marga Publications.
  • Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (1987-4th ed.). Ananada Marga Caryacarya, part=2. Ananda Marga Publications.
  • Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (1992-4th ed.). Ananada Marga Caryacarya, part=3. Ananda Marga Publications.
  • Nandita, & Devadatta. (1971). Path of bliss: Ananda Marga yoga. Wichita, Kan: Ananda Marga Publishers.
  • Avadhūtika Ānanda Mitra Ācāryā (1986). Neo-humanist Education: Education for a New World. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 0-88476-007-3.
  • Acarya Prasiidananda Avadhuta (1990). Neo-Humanist Ecology. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 971-8623-12-4.
  • Ananda Marga Aa. Vv. (1973, 2nd ed.). Teaching asanas: An Ananda Marga manual for teacher. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 0-88476-000-6.
  • An organisational model based on microvita cosmology (sadviprasamaj.wordpress.com)
  • The freedom of choise in the light of microvita cosmology (sadviprasamaj.wordpress.com)
  • Cycle of Creation (sadviprasamaj.wordpress.com)

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