ROMAN SAM’SKRTA Pronounciation guide
EXAMPLES OF PRONUNCIATION
The symbols, fonts or characters of International Phonetic Alphabet; IPA, containing short vowels, long vowels, diphthongs and consonants are not found adequate for truly representing the TA’NTRIC SYMBOLS OR INDO-A’RYAN ALPHABETS. They are also only approximate symbolization of vocal expressions and vary in accordance with nature, characteristics, locality etc. The IPA symbols are not quickly available for presentation, more difficult to grasp by common English knowing people, do not truly express the sound, hence not used here except showing some examples.
(In Sam’skrta phonetics, the letters are systematically arranged- BA’BA’ V.V. p7)
SVARA VARN’A (APPROXIMATE VOWELS): PURE
A/a (Λ) — as in run, her, but, tub, cut, (adopted here, though may have 21 Types of pronunciations)
A’/a’ (α:, Ɔ: ) — as in arm, saw, far, bath, fall, father
I/i (ı) — as in sit, pin, thin, bit, sin, wig, lid
II/ii (ı:) — as in see, teeth, cheek, flee, deep,
U/u (Ʊ) — as in put,
U’/u’ (u:) — as in too, boon, soon,
R/r (r) — it is a half-letter [has no ending vowel sound] but jointly used as ri or ru pronunciation.
rr, lr, lrr, — Used in Vedic language only but of ta’ntrik significance
E/e (e,ǝ) — as in bed, ago, day,
AE/ae (ǽ,eı) — as in cat, fan, dash, dam, bat, rat,
O/o (eƱ) — as in no, go, so, note, vote, coat, open, door,
AO/ao (aƱ) — as in hot, how, out, shout,
AM’/am’ ( ) — (nasalisation of preceeding vowel ) as in tank, bond, pink
AH/ah ( ) — (aspirated version or ha sound appended to the vowel) as in bah, blah, vah
VYAINJANA VARN’A belonging to Varga or class (APPROXIMATE CONSONANTS)
a halanta or has’anta means pronunciation
without inherent ‘a’ ending
KA/ka ( ), – as in cat, coat, car, kite, kit,
KHA/kha ( ),- (aspirated k) as in khaki, khan,
GA/ga ( ), – as in get, go,
GHA/gha ( ),- (aspirated g) as in ghost, ghetto, aghast,
UNA/ una ( ɧ )- as in song, sing, bring, ring, ping-pong, cling
CA/ca (tʃ), – as in chat, chamber, chalk, chain, chase, cheese, church
CHA/cha ( ),- (aspirated c) as in ?
JA/ja ( ), – (hard or palatal) as in jar, jelly, job (light pronunciation is not symbolized here)
Hard ja is pronounced by touching the tongue to the upper palate
Light ja is pronounced by thrusting the tongue towards the teeth’s lower gum like Z
JHA/jha ( ),- (aspirated j)as in ?
INA/ina ( ),- as in clinch
T’A/t’a ( ), – (cerebral) as in top, tub, tumbler,
T’HA/t’ha ( ),- (aspirated t’)as in ?
D’A/d’a ( Ǒ ), – (cerebral) as in dog, dam etc.
D’HA/d’ha ( ),- (aspirated d’a)as in ? . but “d’a” and “d’ha” occurring in the middle of a word and at the end are pronounced “r’a” and “r’ha” respectively
N’/n’a ( ),- (cerebral) as in ?
TA/ta ( ), – (dental) as in ?
THA/tha ( Ө),- (aspirated t) as in thick, thin, thalamus, opthalmia
DA/da ( ), – (dental) as in them,
DHA/dha ( ),- (aspirated da) as in ?
NA/na ( ),- (dental) as in no, none, nun, nice, new,
PA/pa ( ), – as in pen, pet,
PHA/pha ( ),- (aspirated p)as in few,
BA/ba ( ), – as in but, bit, byte, bite, bang
BHA/bha ( ),- (aspirated b) as in ?
MA/ma ( ), – as in mom, man,
ANTASTHA VARN’A (pronunciation differs
at the start of word)
YA/ya ( ), – If appearing at start of the word, it should be pronounced as “light ja”otherwise “ia”(=near); is a combination of “I+A”
RA/ra ( ), – as in red, ram, ray, tongue touches teeth of upper palate for starting ra otherwise without
LA/la ( ), – as in leg, lad, lap, all, if not at start of word, it should be pronounced as lra
VA/va ( ), – as in voice, van, love, ever, if not at start of the word, it should be pronounced like wa (world, wonder)
WA/wa ( ) – is a combination of “O+A”
U’S’MA VARN’A (pronunciation creates
heat in vocal cavity)
SHA/sha ( ʃ ),- (palatial= tongue touches back of palate) as in shine, shoe, shoot, shy, bush,
S’A/s’a ( ), – (cerebral= tongue touches middle of palate) as as in Krs’n’a
SA/sa ( ), – (dental = tongue tip touches teeth)) as in sit, same, so,
HA/ha ( ), – as in he, hen,
KS’A/ks’a ( ) – (aspirated x, quick pronunciation may be made like KKHA ) as in text,